Monday, December 30, 2019

We Are Too Dependent On Computer Systems Essay - 952 Words

We Are Too Dependent on Computer Systems It is said by Ray Kurzweil that in 15 years, computers will be smarter than the whole human race (Khomami). Is there any shred of truth to that statement and if so is it a problem? As a society, we are very dependent on software systems and computer technologies. We would be rendered almost completely helpless without our laptops, internet, and smart phones. While they generally make our lives easier, we have grown to need software technologies to an unhealthy extent. Starting from an early age, people depend on software. Children sit in their car seat and ask for mommy’s tablet to play games; often times children choose computer games over playing outside. Because smart phones are simply handheld computers, pre-teens, teenagers, and many adults are glued to their phones for a solid portion of the day. They have what is now called â€Å"checking habits† by a study in the journal Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (Khomami). This is where a person checks their applications or emails about every 10 minutes for about a minute or so. There is no reason to do it such as a notification or text, it’s just frequently checking to see what updates have happened while you were away. According to Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers s annual Internet Trends report, people check their phones on average 150 times a day (Stern).The study asserts that it is an unconscious habit that is only another form of addiction (Khomami). TheShow MoreRelatedEssay about Societys Dependence on Computers919 Words   |  4 PagesComputers are everywhere, and they are used for everything, and in every type of business have we become too dependent on computers? The younger generation particularly has seized on the strange communication through the Internet. Using chat groups on different subjects they are taking in school, they conduct live conversations by keyboard through the internet. Since computers have been invented, so many people everywhere find themselves dependent on computers. Computers are appearing almost aboutRead MoreOverdependence on Computer1160 Words   |  5 PagesArgumentative Writing Topic: We are becoming overwhelmingly dependent on computers. Is thisdependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits? Introduction Computers are, without a doubt, a useful tool that many of us use every day. Sincetheir invention, people far and wide have become increasingly dependent oncomputers. Computers have found their way into just about every aspect of our lives, and in most cases, they make things easier for us. They allow usRead MoreAre we too Dependent on Computers?1091 Words   |  4 PagesToday we live in a modern age where technological development is one of the greatest gifts to humanity. Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function (Wikipedia). It also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangementsRead MorePeople Depend Too Much on Computers and Technology Essay692 Words   |  3 PagesPeople Depend Too Mu ch On Computers and Technology Are we too dependent on computers? The answer is yes! In today’s society, people use computers in business, education, and in the entertainment world. Almost everything we do and every aspect of our life is affected by modern technology with computers at the top of the list. People obsess over computers. The computers do everything for us so we don’t have to use our brains anymore. People are losing their jobs due to the computers moving into theRead MoreEssay on People Have Become Overly Dependent on Technology880 Words   |  4 PagesBilguun Tugs-Amgalan Everett LeGrande English 1 5/April/2011 People have become overly dependent on technology Humans have been called the animals which make things, and at no time in history has this been so obvious as the present. Today, every human activity is dependent upon various tools, machines, and systems, from growing food to providing shelter to communication, healthcare, and entertainment. Some machines, like the tractor, speed up and make more efficient activities that humans haveRead MoreDependent on Computers884 Words   |  4 PagesAre we too dependent on computers? When we talk about computers, people often relate computers with modern technologies. Computer is a tool that helps us make things in our life easier. People use computers in business, public services, educations, even entertainment. Our daily activities are more and more based closely on the working of computer. Almost everything we do is affected by modern technology and computers. I would say that I agree that people nowadays depend on computers too muchRead MoreMobile Phone and People1469 Words   |  6 PagesTERM PAPER The production and sale of cigarettes should be made illegal. People have become overly dependent on technology. University students should pass the English proficiency test before graduation Argumentative Essay : People have become overly dependent on technology. Topic: People have become overly dependent on technology 1. Introduction (paragraph 1) A.Hook: Computer, hand phones, Internet, and latest gadgets such as GPStacking devices are not anymore unusual thing in our  dailyRead MoreSociety s Technology On Technology875 Words   |  4 Pagesimaginable; so much that everyone thinks that society is becoming too dependent on technology. â€Å"Technological progress is like an axe in the hands of a pathological criminal.† Albert Einstein. Even before today’s advancement in technology Albert Einstein made perfect sense with this statement. Today’s society seems to be unable to live without TV, internet, cell phones, and computers. Our society, being so dependent on technology, without it we will lack information, be delayed or shutdown, and will loseRead MoreComputer Makes People Become Lazy1111 Words   |  5 Pageshappened with my quiz. After we checked all the answers, my teacher realized that her computer made a making mistake. Therefore I realized that even a computer made mistake; computers may have revolutionized the way we live and work, but what would happen if they all suddenly crashed? As we increasingly rely on computers to get through the day, the question begs to be asked: have we become too dependent on computers? People has one thing that distinct with other is thinking. We create everything to makeRead MoreTechnology : We Can No Longer Live Without It?1217 Words   |  5 PagesTechnology: We can no longer live without it. Society has come a long way with the use of technology. In 1876, the first phone arose. 95 years later the personal computer was also invented in 1971. Now 45 years later we have the capabilities of both in the palms of our hands. It used to take us weeks to communicate with someone a few cities away. It now only takes a few seconds to communicate with someone in a completely different country. Where it used to take hours to research information in

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Development of AI in The AI Revolution is on by...

When the earth began there was no life, it was a world of fire and oceans of lava, after thousands of year’s life began in the ocean and soon came onto land. The land creatures developed into dinosaurs which ruled the world for thousands of years until a meteor wiped them out and a great ice age came. Once the ice age ended monkeys came and from them humans. We have been around for two thousand years and now we have created artificial intelligence which is becoming more and more integrated into our ever increasingly complicated world to make it simpler but have humans also created the next cycle of evolution? The AI Revolution is on by Steven Levy is about Artificial intelligence (AI). Levy writes about how the AI came around and how it affects our daily life. Levy explains impeccably how its developers strayed away from imitating human intelligence, and how it is integrated into our society. Levy has been reporting on digital technology for over twenty five years and his arti cles have been published in many distinguished magazines according to Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Levy’s article begins by talking about how robots are used in ware houses that are linked to a main computer that tells the robots what they need to get. The ware house is organized in small groups of products spread out threw out it, this way the robots don’t have to travel as far to get the product but to a human it looks like a random pile or stuff that isn’t sorted at all. Levy goes onShow MoreRelatedComputer Evolution Evidenced in the essays Toward An Intelligence Beyond Man’s by Robert Jastrow and The AI Revolution Is On by Steven Levy660 Words   |  3 Pagesworm to human. By the incredibly fast rate of technology improvement, Jastrow thought computer will evolve in a much shorter period of time. In the essay The AI Revolution Is On by Steven Levy, the author stated how new vision of computer intelligence are differ from the past years’, and how useful they are in today’s daily life. Levy used as an example of AI’s application in real world. Like other big companies warehouse, it use robots by Kiva Systems to organize the warehouse andRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesCase Incident 1 Multitasking: A Good Use of Your Time? 264 Case Incident 2 Bonuses Can Backfire 265 3 9 The Group Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Defining and Classifying Groups 272 Why Do People Form Groups? 272 Stages of Group Development 274 The Five-Stage Model 275 †¢ An Alternative Model for Temporary Groups with Deadlines 276 Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, Cohesiveness, and Diversity 277 Group Property 1: Roles 277 †¢ Group Property 2: Norms 280 †¢ Group PropertyRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 PagesTotal Quality Management (TQM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Policy Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Sources of Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Effective Policy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Implementing Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Steps in Making Decisions . . . . . . . .Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesManager Marketing As sistant Production Manager Senior Production Editor Freelance Development Editor Senior Designer Interior Design Senior Media Editor Senior Photo Editor Production Management Cover Design Cover Credit George Hoffman Lise Johnson Sarah Vernon Amy Scholz Laura Finley Dorothy Sinclair Sandra Dumas Susan McLaughlin Kevin Murphy Laura Ierardi Allison Morris Hilary Newman mb editorial services David Levy  ©Michael Eudenbach/Getty Images, Inc. This book was set in 10/12 ITC Legacy

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Investigating Education through Research (IETR) Free Essays

string(128) " of in a focus group situation are the processing of confidential material and sensitivity to the feelings of each contributor\." Introduction This report reviews the article Every Child Matters written by Straker and Foster (2009) and explores the need for multi agency collaboration in the ‘children’s workforce’ within an English multi disciplinary child based setting. to ensure that the ECM outcomes are met consistently through efficient in service direction of staff at multi tiered levels. This paper argues that if the outcomes of ECM are to be met, that staff working within these areas must work collaboratively. We will write a custom essay sample on Investigating Education through Research (IETR) or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is anticipated that only by receiving appropriate and effective multi-agency training that consistency and continuity of the broad ECM aims can be achievedSome elements of this article are applicable to my UMP in that the function of ECM broad aims relate to inclusive/inclusion and inclusivity for all children and young people. Some authors represented in this article will be appropriate and significant to my research and may be used as underpinning and reinforcement to my main policy Special Educational Needs Disability Act (SENDA). The assessment criteria used to evaluate this journal article are: Context/significance of the research report Has the significance of the article been explained and justified? Methods/methodology used Have different research methods/methodologies been used effectively? Ethics Has good ethical practice been facilitated prior or during the research? Veracity /process of the research How reliable are the findings? Influenced by ever changing political issues, Government structures, cultural values and economic factors the authors translated policy guidelines into practical solutions using qualitative methods of research and underpinning citations from multiple theorists to evaluate the level of understanding, participation and clarity of the five Every Child Matters (ECM)(DfEs,2003) broad aims. Every Child Matters: Change for Children (ECM) (DfES, 2003) is a legislatedinitiative set up by the Government with the intention of ensuring that every young person regardless of circumstance or environment is to be given the underpinning they require to: be healthy; stay safe; enjoy and achieve; make a positive contribution; and achieve economic wellbeing. (ibid) Every Child Matters went on to propose a framework of desirable outcomes for children which might form the basis of common assessment systems, shared working practices, and, above all, shared goals for childhood professionals (DfES, 2003: 9). A year later, the Government legislated, in the Children Act, 2004, to: create integrated children’s services departments by combining education and child and family social care functions; Bring these new services together with health and other childhood services by establishing children’s Trusts locally; Develop a set of shared working practices across these services and increase the mutual understanding and common skills base of childhood professionals. Submitted to Manchester University(no date) Dyson et al. This paper argues that there are flawsidentified byresearchers and theorists. Sloan (2006,12) states (t)o date there continues to be tensions and rivalries between agencies about their professional knowledge, roles and specialisms. The loss of agency specialism and the responsibilities that go with this are potentially traumatic for professionals going through the transition from single agency to multi agency work (Anning et al. 2005,72). Straker and Foster (2009) argue that as well as training and the ECM agenda, there are issues surrounding professional identity and differentiation. This is substantiated by Macdonald, (1995,35) It challenges, to invoke Bourdieu’s notion, the various folklores which are attached to different professional arenas and hence seeks to force open social closures which different groups of workers try to uphold as they defend their professional and personal identity (cf Macdonald,1995,35 cited in Straker and Foster 2009) The content, research methods and findings of this article will be evaluated within this document.. Content The evaluation criterions for this review are: Has the significance of the article been explained and justified? Have different research methods/methodologies been used effectivelyHas good ethical practice been facilitated prior or during the researchHow reliable are the findings? The significance of the article is to establish the level of clarity of the ECM broad aims and multi agency collaboration within children’s services departments. Every Child Matters: Change for Children (2004) identified flaws in the effective protection of children from some departments. These concerns are further backed up by the Bercow Report [2008] which also pinpoint five major ideas – problemsthat require rectifying to enable adjustments and enhancement to develop. The recommendationsfrom this report are gathered under these five themes: Communication is crucial Early identification and intervention are essential; A continuum of services designed around the family is needed; Joint working is critical; and The current system is characterised by high variability and a lack of equity. (ibid) Straker and Foster’s review clearly identifies the focus of the research and the points the paper seeks to address. The methods of research were identified as being via focus group and semi structured interviews. The mixed personnel samples were discussed and their purpose was explained. Ethical considerations were identified and appropriate protocol was evident in text. The study findings and results were clarified with recommendations for future action. The researcher concurs with the findings of ECM(2004) and the Bercow Report (2008) from reading associated literature Victoria Climbie’ Report by Lord Laming (2003)and from media coverage regarding failings of services responsible for the care for children.e.g. The case of baby P . Reform is essential to ensure no repetition of these failings. Ethical considerations for focus groups are the same as for most other methods of social research (Homan 1991). When selecting and involving participants the researchers must ensure that full information about the purpose of contributions is given. Implications of appropriate ethics consideration was contained in the written body of this text. It should be stated that none of the participants were known to the researchers prior to these interviews and focus groups, and that, in order to maintain anonymity, participants are identified by letters (Cohort 1) and numbers (Cohort 2) throughout the below discussion. Straker Foster (2009. P.124) Honesty and keeping the contributor enlightened about the expectedoutcomes of the exercise is apparent within the paper. Good practice prohibits candidates to be pressured into communicating information, there was no implication of this in the article. Ethical considerations to be aware of in a focus group situation are the processing of confidential material and sensitivity to the feelings of each contributor. You read "Investigating Education through Research (IETR)" in category "Essay examples" Clarification of how contributions will be used and shared by personnel involved in the exercise must be established prior to the activity. Confidentiality must be a focus to be communicated to the group as a priority this avoids any sensitive material being leaked. Analysts have a duty to conceal data from the participants This paper indicates that pseudonyms were used. This complies with the principles of British Educational Research [BERA]. According to Hammersley and Traianou,(2007)c ommonly recognized ethical principles include harm, autonomy, privacy, reciprocity and equity. If social research is to remain of benefit to society and the groups and individuals within it, then social researchers must conduct their work responsibly and in light of the moral and legal order of the society in which they practice. They have a responsibility to maintain high scientific standards in the methods employed in the collection and analysis of data and the impartial assessment and dissemination of findings.[SRA 2003, 13]. Literature Review A literature review outlines the scope of the subject area, trends, themes and prior research that demonstrate awareness of work carried out on the issue/topic covered. The article sets out to explore the need for multi agency collaboration within the ‘children’s workforce’. The aim to pilot and assess the overall understanding of policy interpretation in this area. The effectiveness of training to inform and guide these agencies to a joint, collaborative service with less overlap. The literature review was initially wide including general texts such as ECM,(2003), Children’s Workforce Development Council (2007), Victoria Climbie’ Report by Lord Laming (2003) and Reid, (2005,13). The focus then narrowed drawing on the comments of Allnock et al.(2006,35-7), Atkinson et al.(2007) and Moran et al, (2006) then finally focussing on the topic aims. Issues surrounding multi agency collusion are not new. The potential benefits have been discussed repeatedly by Government reports e.g. DfEE (1999) and Atkinson et al.( 2002), Atkins, Jones and Lamont (2007) Bloxham (1996) and Payne(1998) all agree that there are possible advantages of shared Practice. The review of literature by the authors suggested anticipated problems with strategy implementation resulting in inconsistencies and overlapping of roles across childcare teams to meet the broad aims of the ECM –Change for Children policy,(2204). Allnock et al. (2006,35-7) in summing up the research within this document identifies the need for more clarification of role where there is full coverage for all areas without overlap. The focus therefore was for the implementation of strategies that addressed Government policy consistently. The literature review within this article is appropriate; references display deepness and wideness which is clear and concise. Several appropriate references were used in the introduction which gives a broad understanding of policy, statute and the need to work in collaboration to meet the desired outcomes of the ECM: Change for Children (2004). This literature review is good as it gives a wide overview of the subject, informed analysis of findings, identified variables and offered recommendationsfrom the findings. The spotlight on content and relevance is evident. Critique and collaboration of other policy is also discussed within the paper. The authors state clearly that other theorists and participants concur that it is a ‘two way street’ where united collaboration will only take place when all Government partners and child care professionals share the same ethos, receive appropriate guidance and training and communication is effective . Straker and Foster’s, (2009) could have used the recommendations from the Bercow Report to evaluate and substantiate their own findings. The literature review concludes by identifying that whilst training has been identified as being a potential asset it is still sporadic this may be due to resisting the opportunities, lack of vision to move with changes or basically that it is not available to certain sectors or personnel. Different sectors within this subject are identified as requiring further investigation these are those that require professional identity (clarification of role) and differentiation (what the role involves for the individual).It is also identified that through ECM professional development and training that these obstacles could be overcome. Methods and findings Research is defined by two categories qualitative and quantitative Qualitative research is drawn from many sources. This is primarilydue, as Lancy (1993) points out, to the fact that â€Å"†¦ topic, theory, and methodology are usually closely interrelated in qualitative research[p.3].† Both research methods usedin this journal article were qualitative. Qualitative methods are helpful not only in giving rich explanations of complex phenomena, but in creating or evolving theories or conceptual bases, and in proposing hypotheses to clarify the phenomena. (Shwartz, 2000). Quantitative research examines the variables of statistical information. This type of research uses controlled systems in order to prove or disprove a theory. Basic research is primary this type of research is information or data from a chosen subject that requires further explanation or clarification with the intention of gaining more clarification and understanding. The results are not immediate or short term. On one hand there is research which is qualitative with no scientific element in the experiential perception, it is the questioning why in the humanistic sense and the other which is more analytical and questions the relationship amid irregulars being qualitative and /or quantitative research to prove or disprove a hypothesis. However debate between researchers remains as to what is valid research. Applied research Applied research communicates outcomes on multiple layers. This type of research scrutinizes issues in genuine context the aim being the provision of a realistic resolution which usually comes from fundamentalstudy in this case Every Child Matters: Change for Children[ECM] [2004]. Applied research can capture why policy accomplishment is delayed or suspended. The example being the variables of policy interpretation, policy understanding and what trainees want their learning experience to be and how to implement changes in the workplace. This is clearly identified within the reviewed journal article. Primary research consists of interviews and eye witness accounts etc. Which are taken from observational methods. Whereas secondary research could use books, Government documents etc. This method uses the findings of others for the advancement of knowledge. Secondary and primary research is effective when used together as it shows variety and veracity of information and data. The article reviewed used both methods to give weight and impact to the research thus providing depth and breadth. The researchers aim was to build an accredited, tiered pathway of training. The nature of the research and the distinctive challenges of shared vision and leadership for the Children’s Service workforce is very diverse in its makeup. There were observed identified differences in this pilot research. Straker and Foster (2009) research set out to answer the questions on the effectiveness of ECM aims within children’s services, the implementation within different tiers and multi agency training. The chosen research methodology was focus group ; strength of this method is the ability to inform many people in a limited time a weakness of this method is cost and time constraints. Semi structured interview encourages two way dialogue but the interviewer must be articulate and confident; this can a weakness if not. The framework of the questions from both research methodologies cited above was to establish how far the rhetoric of ECM and the effect of translation over the mult i faceted children and family service. The sampling strategy was opportunistic 3 cohorts of participants from various fields working within children’s services. Opportunistic sampling allows new strands of information to be pursued allowing the length and width of research to be explored.(Journal of Mixed Method Research January 2007 1:77- 100). The piloting of research is to establish reliability and validity in this case by asking the same questions to different cohorts. It is the tool to measure the level of knowledge or participation in an subject in this instance ECM and multi agency collaboration and training. Researchers will sometimes see if the measure yields different scores for two groups who are expected to differ in the construct. Harter and Pike (1994). Social enquiry when correctly executed can result in effective results for all, this type of research is grounded foundation to build on for the benefit an enhancement of the subject/s being studied. Social enquiry is predicated on the belief that greater access to well grounded information will serve rather than threaten the interests of society. Nonetheless, in planning all phases of an inquiry, from design to presentation of findings, social researchers should consider the likely consequences for society at large, groups and categories of persons within it, respondents or other subjects, and possible future research. [SRA 2003, 17] Focus groups allow the collating of data from personnel at various levels within educational settings the diversity of their backgrounds and their original outlooks allow the researchers opportunity to obtain information from varying perspectives and backgrounds. With an individual survey or interview, a respondent’s input will be limited to the ideas and issues that he/she thinks of at the time of the session. The only prompts to trigger these ideas are the specific questions on the survey and/or the comments from the interviewer. In a focus group participants benefit from the ability to build on each other’s ideas and comments, typically providing more extensive input than would otherwise be possible. In contrast to written or online surveys and phone interviews, focus groups present the possibility of observing nonverbal behavior. Wiesenfelder,(no date) Focus groups are particularly useful when there are power differences between the participants and decision makers or professionals, when the everyday use of language and culture of particular groups is of interest, and when one wants to explore the degree of consensus on a given topic (Morgan Kreuger, 1993). Kitzinger (1994) argues that interaction is the crucial feature of focus groups because the interaction between participants highlights their view of the world, the language they use about an issue and their values and beliefs about a situation. Interaction also enables participants to ask questions of each other, as well as to re-evaluate and reconsider their own understandings of their specific experiences. Stavrou, (2002) states that it is useful in qualitative research as unreconstructed logicor the inflexible science of reasoning and is used to understand what is real: the quality , meaning, context or image of reality in what people actually do, not what they say they do [as in the collection of quantitative data] Stavrou, [2002]. Although having many benefits alongside other investigation methods limitations are evident. The researcher, or moderator, for example, has less control over the data produced (Morgan 1988) than in either quantitative studies or one-to-one interviewing. This gives little control leaving a predominantly open ended outcome with an unpredictable predetermined conclusion. A predicted outcome is not the aim of a focus group the diversity of the subjects within the group prohibits this. More positively, focus groups may pose some difficulty in assembly. Obtaining a representative sample may be a challenge as focus groups may not be an option for certain members of personnel. Such as people who have confidence issues, the less eloquent, those with speech delays or learning difficulties. The authors of the journal article did not indicate that the above was an issue for the participants taking part but if this were the case the reviewer would have expected the choice of research method to accommodate the diversities within the sample. To address some of the weaknesses of a focus group supporting research strategies were implemented. Semi structured interviews are focused two way conversations that are used to give and receive information. This method is conducted with an open framework which differs from a questionnaire where questions are formulated prior to the interview starting. The research methodology of semi- structured interview commences with generalized questions or topics Key themes explored include roles and responsibilities, their perceptions of the ECM agenda, and its impact on their practice as well as their relationships with other agencies. Straker Foster(2009. P.124) This then forms the basis of a more specific line of questioning which does not require forward planning. In effect this gives the researcher ‘’carte blanche’’ to create most of the questions during the process giving the interviewer the opportunity to probe so allowing depth of detail or the opportunity to discuss delicate/conflicting issues 1-1’’ Wengraf (2001.P.194-5) Semi structured consultations may be recorded by prior agreement in compliance with theethic code. This affords more accuracy if supported with notation as back up. The latter ensures that all questions are addressed and ifthere are mechanical glitches there is supporting evidence. The disadvantages of this research method are concluding the interview through visual clues e.g. closing books tidying up papers which may hamper the flow of the process thus turning the interviewee off . Wengraf, [2001. 11] as above states that ending an interview appropriately can lead to the emergence of a whole new area of information. A further pitfall of this method is that the transcribing and analysis of data can prove time consuming and the opportunity to get side tracked with anecdotes and generally inappropriate information is a possibility. In any research thefirst questions that you should ask are: Has this been done beforeDoes these data already existIf so, is there value-added in doing this againRand, [2009, 16] Whilst these methods offer breadth and depth my opinion is that it would be easy to keep to the structure as other information may come up that could side track the research event. The principle of the research was the exploration of need for multi agency collaboration within children’s services. The research focused on three sets of personnel working within different branches of the children’s care framework, ethical considerations were followed and informed consent was documented as being obtained. The sample used was diverse in its make up ranging from junior tosenior management levels. The desirable model of practice was taken from the ECM, (2004) shared goals. The article included semi structured interviews and focus groups to establish the levels of understanding and participation within their specialism. The methods chosen proved to be limited and the sample size although diverse in makeup was small which may hamper the overall picture of awareness in this field of enquiry. Data interpretation and analysis The authors of this journal article identified that whilst there was marked amountof similarities in opinionwithin the groups any disparity in opinions was thought to be as a result of the lack of clarity of ECM outcomes and involvement therein, this is underpinned by relevant references from Annig et al ; Sloan( 2006) .The researchers in this study identified that participant’s roles and responsibilities varied considerably and this determined the responses of the individual groups. The article therefore implies that other tiers would benefit from the knowledge and understanding of their peers roles within the sector. Multi-channel collusion: Happens at dissimilar tiers: information transmitted to personnel from different disciplines; co-operation and joint working on a case-by-case basis; co-ordination and formalised joint working; coalition at the level of joint structures; and integration of organisations merging to create a new identity Horwath and Morrison, [2007]. The findings of the research agrees with Horwath and Morrison, [2007]. The diversity of the groups and the differing tiers gave depth and breadth of insight into the levels of participation and understanding of the ECM framework. The study ranged from a wholly positive attitude from cohort one to cohort two, who whilst still positive did feel confident in highlighting negative and problem areas. Cohort three displayed a an eclectic mix of groups one and two. It was interesting to viewthe responses of the individual groups even though each sample group was mixed in level academically and professionally the responses in group 1 and 2 were on the whole identified as being positive. Disparities were identified in group 2 due to gaps [they felt] in understanding of the ECM framework for some employees this was proving problematic. The dynamics in group 3 was a mixture of positive and negative responses/comments in line with the other two groups sampled. The same comments from individuals during the tasks was encouraging, the mention of shared values, the understanding of other professional roles and a feeling of belonging as a result of this training exercise was a positive step . Conclusion The research concluded that key issues that emerged were communication, leadership and consistency in practice. Communication is considered to be of paramount importance in promoting the awareness of knowledge and the clarification of the work that other agencies do. Leadership was defined as being a multi tiered facet which has the ability to empower, promote a shared vision and purpose. This was acknowledged as a being a strength in shared collaboration only when colleagues were willing to change and adapt practiceto new agendas. Whilst the participants in the focus group acknowledge the needs of effective communication, good leadership in order to work collaboratively interpretation of the outcomes of ECM and overlap of role still appears to be problematic areas. Problem areas were also identified, these included lack of consistency in practice, the inability for some employees to move forward with new ideas and policy directives, lack of clarity in job description and poor perc eption. These findings are reasonably founded as other researchers early in the article indicate similar findings and are broadly reiterated by others participating in this research. These findings are presented in the form of statements that identify the participant by pseudonym but highlight the accurate job title. Many sources of appropriate documentation were used to support this journal article. Theory is used to embed and underpin throughout the article. The literature used created a chronological picture of policy and the multi strand approach to addressing the issue of lack of clarity and cooperation within children’s services. The description of research participants and levels was appropriate to enable the reader to establish the reasoning behind the research that was to be identified. Ethics guidelines were documented as being followed appropriately. Some reinforcement of ethical paperwork in the appendices would have been useful. Policy and practice mis- match is identified as an ongoing concern across the children’s services sector. This exercise has identified the focal characteristics of focus group and semi structured interviews research methodology, with emphasis being on the interaction and oscillation of participants which only qualitative methods of research can facilitate. Participants who do engage in focus groups often obtain value from the experience but realistic deliberation of time consuming focus group situations from the researchers point of view could be daunting. Lack of chance to complete the required elements involved within the allotted constraints can be a deterrent. The process of these types of research can be more collaborative than other forms of study and can be an empowering process for participants and an exciting challenge for social researchers wanting to gain a different perspective on their field of interest. (Harrell and Bradley 2009 cited in Rand, 2009) The initial questions identified earlier in this article have been answered and reasoning behind the findings has been discussed. The theory was used to substantiate the outcomes from the article. References Article Pros Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research Methods http://www.Article Schwartz Accessed 5/3/11 accessed 14/11/10 accessed 29/10/10 24/10/10 DfEs,(2003) Every Child Matters. Cm. 5860 (London: The Stationery Office). DfES (2003a) Every Child Matters. Cm. 5860 (London: The Stationery Office) Every Child Matters-Change for Children. (2004) Homepage . 5/3/11 Gibbs, A. (1997) Social Research Update University of Surrey Issue 19. http://www.sru 19 html accessed 5/3/11 Hammersley, M. and Traianou, A. (2007) Ethics and Educational Research. London: TLRP. accessed 5/3/11 Harrell,M. AND Bradley,M. (2009) Data Collection Mehtods: Semi Structured Interviews and Focus Groups. accessed 14/11/10 Harter and Pike, (1994) cited in Lodico, G. Spaulding, D.T., Voegtle, H. (2010) Methods of Educational Research from Theory to Practice. San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass Homan R (1991) Ethics in Social Research. Harlow: Longman Horwath, J. and Morrison, T. (2007) Collaboration, integration and change in children’s services: Critical issues and key ingredients, Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 55-69. accessed 5/3/11 Kitzinger J. (1994,1995) ‘The methodology of focus groups: the importance of interaction between research participants’, Sociology of Health 16 (1): 103-21. accessed 5/3/11 Lancy,D.F. [1993]. Qualitative research in education: An introduction to the major traditions. New York: Longman. Manchester University(no date) Dyson et al. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples, Journal of Mixed Method Research January 2007 1:77-100 Morgan D.L. (1988) Focus groups as qualitative research. London: Sage Morgan and Kruger, (1993) Social Research Update. ( no date)Issue 19 University of Surrey. Morgan D.L. and Kreuger R.A. (1993) ‘When to use focus groups and why’ in Morgan D.L. (Ed.) Successful Focus Groups. London: Sage. Kitzinger, (1994) Social Research Update.( no date) Issue 19 University of Surrey. Qualitative Report, (1995) Vol. 2: 3. accessed on various dates Social Research Association ethical guidelines accessed 7/11/10 Social Research Update issue 19 University of Surrey http://www. accessed 5/3/11 SRA,(2003,17) Stavrou, S. (2002) Youth Delinquent Surveys: A Methodology Paper accessed 27.11.10 Straker, Katherine Foster, Rob [2009] ‘Every Child Matters: Every challenge met?’ Journal of Vocational Education Training, 61:2, 119-132 Wengraf, Tom (2001). Qualitative research interviewing. London: Sage. Wiesenfelder, H. (no date) What are the Benefits of Focus Groups. How to cite Investigating Education through Research (IETR), Essays

Friday, December 6, 2019

The Security Threats in Smart Devices Free-Sample for Students

Question: Discuss about the Security Threats in Smart Devices. Answer: Introduction Information Security has become important for every business organization and users those are using Information Technology applications. With the advancement of IT, various issues of security and privacy are encountered such as hacking, phishing, identify theft, DDoS attacks etc. It is essential to control these security issues by using advanced security techniques. There are different applications of Information Technology and smart devices are one of them. Smart devices are electronic devices and connect with other devices and network by using different wireless protocols such as NFC, Bluetooth, 3G, and Wi-Fi etc. These wireless protocols operates at autonomous and interactive extent. Smart devices are used for both home and business purposes and examples of these devices are Home Surveillance Devices, Hazard Detection Devices, Cooking Devices, and Computer Systems. Smart Phones etc. There are some features that make these devices smart such as easy to use, trusted, reliable, secur e and fast. Whether smart devices are secured, but still there are some essential security threats found in smart devices. The purpose of making this report is to discuss about Security Threats in Smart Devices. The essential points that we will discuss in this report are challenges, problems, technologies applications, relevant technologies and real life impact of security threats of smart devices. Challenges of Security threats in Smart Devices The security threats in Smart Devices cause various challenges for users and developers of these devices. These challenges are discussed as below: Unauthorized Access Unauthorized access of information is performed by hackers to access data from smart devices and their networks while sending and receiving data by users. It is vulnerable security threat of smart devices and it has become an essential challenge to control. Information that is accessed in unauthorized way can be misused by hackers. Lack of Experience The security threats are getting more advanced and due to that it is challenging for security professionals to control these security threats. Besides this, most of the security professionals have experienced in market of network devices not in hardware and software components of devices. This lack of experience has made security and privacy of smart devices a challenging factor for developers. Problems of Security Threats in Smart Devices Security threats in smart devices cause various essential problems for users of smart devices. These problems are related to leakage of content due to lack of security of smart devices, damage of devices due to virus attacks and risk of breach of personal and financial data of customers that is transferred over network (CUJO Smart Firewall, 2017). Relevant Technologies It is necessary to resolve above discussed challenges and problems of security threats in smart devices. To achieve this relevant technologies are required to use at developers extent. The effective relevant technologies that can be used for handling above discussed challenges and problems of security threats in smart devices are, use of encryption, anti-virus, firewall and security patches. Encryption is a type of cryptography and it is used to encrypt sensitive information that is transferred by users and developers from one device to another. It is an effective way to secure data of smart devices from hacking and phishing attacks. Another relevant technology to control security threats of smart devices is use of anti-virus. Anti-virus software has capability to detect and remove virus from these devices. Different virus attacks such as malware, DDoS attacks etc. are implemented by hackers, but if virus has installed into these devices then any virus attack can be controlled easily . Next relevant technology for resolving security threats of smart devices is firewall. It is an in-built software solution into operating system and it gives alert to user about unknown entity that has entered into system and at action of user, it can also block that vulnerable entity. In this way, by using these relevant technologies, security threats of smart devices can be managed (United States, 2017). Applications of Technologies These above discussed technologies have wide range of applications. Every individual and organization those are using smart devices or any other application of Information Technology, they can use above discussed technologies for security purposes (, 2017). Clarification about Vague Areas and Research Questions The security threats of smart devices are commonly encountered by IT users and they know about impacts of these security threats. But still there are some vague areas of security threats in smart devices and it is related to specific reasons of occurrence of security threats in devices. By developers various advanced security techniques are used, then why these security issues occur. Question 1: What is the effective way to resolve issue of security in smart devices? Answer: The most effective way to resolve issue of security threats in smart devices is to maintain security and privacy of database and network of these devices effectively by using advanced security techniques (, 2017). Question 2: What is the reason of lack of Security in Devices? Answer: The major area of lacking of security in smart devices is area of development. The use of weak algorithms and less secure programming languages and tools lead to high level security threats in devices (Veracode, 2017). Discussion This segment of report is concerned with summarization of issue that has given in forum or blog that has used for making this report (Schaefer, 2017). Issues or Security Threats of Smart Devices discussed in Forum The main issues or security threats of smart devices that are addressed in this forum of report are Network Spoofing, Phishing Attacks and Unsecured Wi-Fi. Network Spoofing is a big security issue for smart devices and this technique of data theft is used by hackers to implement unauthorized data access from different networks. Under this technique, hackers set up fake access points and these points are similar to Wi-Fi Networks. It is a way to trap users by hackers (The State of Security, 2017). Phishing attack is also one of vulnerable security issues of smart devices. In phishing attacks, sensitive information of users is obtained by hackers and this information can be username, passwords, and other personal and financial information of users. It is very popular attack among cyber criminals (, 2017). To implement this attack, hackers use malicious software and fake emails with virus attachments. When user opens these emails then virus enters into their systems and access data from database. Next issue or security threat of smart devices is use of unsecured Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi is unsecured when no password is used to protect its access. In case of open Wi-Fi, anyone can access it without permission and hackers can misuse it to access user connected devices with this Wi-Fi (, 2017). Important Issues not addressed in Forum As we have discussed some main issues or security threats of smart devices in above segment that must be seriously considered by developers and users of smart devices to get prevention. But there is an essential issue that is not addressed in this forum i.e. Broken Cryptography. Hackers are now using advanced tools to broke security of cryptography and access data from databases. Impact of Security Issues on Real Life There is no doubt that above discussed security threats or issues of smart devices put bad impact on real life of its users. The major security threats that put influence over customers of smart devices are malware attacks, spyware and hacked cryptography (The Windows Club, 2017). Impact of Malware Attack Malware is most vulnerable attack implemented by hackers on databases and networks of users. It is a just small script of program sends by hackers on your system and after its implementation it can damage your system and database. It is bit difficult to control malware attack that is why security experts are hired to control malware attack (Security Intelligence, 2017). Impact of Spyware Attack Another impact of security threats of smart devices on rela life of its users is spyware. Spyware can be installed into systems for its tracking to get information regarding its whereabouts and patterns etc. (InfoSec Resources, 2017) Impact of Hacked Cryptography Cryptography technique of information security is hacked when less secured algorithms are used by app developers. Due to this weakness, hackers can easily hacked encrypted format of information and can use data for their purposes. These are some main issues or security threats of smart devices that put its bad influence on personal and business information of customers and they feel insecure to send data through these devices. Therefore, it is responsibility of developers of smart devices to be careful about these threats and must use security tools and techniques that can provide help to get rid of this problem (The Windows Club, 2017). Important Lesson Learnt from Discussion The important lesson that we have learnt from this whole discussion about security threats of smart devices is that security issues are getting more vulnerable and hackers are inventing new ways to hack our devices and systems. Therefore, for security professionals or developers, it is necessary to be aware about these issues of security and must use advanced security techniques and tools and strong programming algorithms to get prevention. Users purchase smart devices with surety of security and privacy of their sensitive information. But if this will not be provided to them by development companies of smart devices then their trust will be broken. That is why both at users and developers level security maintenance is required. Conclusion After this whole discussion we can say that smart devices can only be beneficial for users if these will maintain security of information stored into it. Therefore, it is responsibility of developers to use better security paradigms and also provide knowledge to users about security maintenance at their level. These will be better ways to handle security threats in smart devices and in other IT applications. References Security Intelligence. (2017). Smart Devices: Think Like a Hacker to Uncover Vulnerabilities. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from CUJO Smart Firewall. (2017). 4 Security Challenges Facing the Internet of Things - CUJO. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from Kaspersky Lab United States. (2017). Kaspersky Personal Family Security Software. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from (2017). 7 Crazy 'Smart' Devices You Didn't Know You Needed. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from (2017). The 7 most useful smart home devices. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from (2017). What is a Smart Device? - Definition from Techopedia. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from Phishing. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from The State of Security. (2017). 6 Common Phishing Attacks and How to Protect Against Them. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from The Windows Club. (2017). Security threats in Smart Devices and Privacy Issues. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from The Windows Club. (2017). Security threats in Smart Devices and Privacy Issues. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from Veracode. (2017). Smart Devices Pose Many Challenges to IoT Security Is Your Company Up to the Challenge? Retrieved 11 May 2017, from Schaefer, J. (2017). Smart Devices - What Makes Them Smart? | IoT For All. IoT For All. Retrieved 11 May 2017, from InfoSec Resources. (2017). Security Challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT). Retrieved 11 May 2017, from (2017). The 7 most useful smart home devices. (2017). Retrieved 11 May 2017, from